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Truth is the daughter of time, and not of authority.

                                                                                                                    (F. Bacon)

 

UNIFIED FIELD OF THE UNIVERSE

 

INFINITELY REPEATING PROCESS OF BIRTH, LIFE AND DEATH OF GALAXIES IN THE UNIVERSE AND MACROBODIES IN GALAXIES

           

Universe is an infinite space filled with infinite quantity of galaxies.

            The nearest part of the Universe accessible to observation at this historical stage of development of science is commonly defined as the Space.

            A group of interrelated galaxies located in a certain place of the Universe is defined as the Metagalaxy.

Galaxies are "nuclei" of the Universe, while constituent elements of galaxies are stars, planets and other material formations. Galaxies, as well as stars, are born, live and die according to certain laws described in books presented on this site.

             The macrobody in the star phase radiates in galactic space matter, of which it consists. In the star phase the macrobody is radiating earlier accumulated matter. For example, our Sun consists of helium and hydrogen, therefore, the Sun radiates electrons, protons, neutrons, combinations of microparticles, nuclei of helium and hydrogen.

            All phases of the macrobody life from creation of gas-dust nebula to the star phase are described in detail in book "ASTRODYNAMICS".

Groups of stars radiating the material substance tend to create centers of equal pressure in a galaxy.

In the centers of equal pressure created by certain groups of stars of a galaxy there occurs concentration of material substance.

   Pressure created by a group of stars in the center of equal pressure during a historical moment of life of group of stars in a galaxy is a constant value.

The material substance radiated by stars of our galaxy is filling this space and creates the material medium of our Galaxy.

Our Galaxy contains about two hundred billion stars. Our Sun is one of these stars. The Sun radiates approximately four million tons of substance per second. Thus, the total radiation of all stars of our Galaxy makes about

                                              

The extent of our Galaxy in diameter is around 100 thousand light years, and in transverse direction it is approximately 30 thousand light years.

The total radiation of all stars of a galaxy creates the material substance of galaxy.

 Galaxies radiating material substance in surrounding space create the intergalactic material medium in the Universe.

Groups of galaxies radiating material substance in surrounding space create centers of equal pressure in Space.

Concentration of material substance occurs in the center of equal pressure created by the group of galaxies.

 Pressure created by the group of galaxies in the center of equal pressure during the historical moment of life of the group of galaxies in the Universe is a constant value.

In the Universe, birth, life and death of galaxies and stars in galaxies take place continuously.

It occurs as follows.

In a certain area of the Universe, in the center of equal pressure of the group of galaxies there happens concentration of matter, and birth of new galaxies. Simultaneously, there occurs disintegration of "old" galaxies. In centers of equal pressure of the galaxy’s group of stars there happens concentration of matter and origin of new macrobodies. Simultaneously, in the same galaxy disintegration of "old" macrobodies occurs.

Galaxies and macrobodies in galaxies tend constantly to increase their mass as a result of arrival of material substance in the center of equal pressure.

As the mass of galaxy increases, the quantity and mass of macrobodies in the galaxy increases as well. The growing mass of galaxy increases pressure in the galaxy. Growing pressure increases temperature.

       Pressure in the galaxy and pressure inside the macrobody are variables.

Galaxy evolution continues until pressure in the galaxy created by the growing mass of material substance is less than the constant pressure created by a group of galaxies in the center of equal pressure.

As soon as pressure in the galaxy goes over the pressure created by the group of galaxies in the center of equal pressure, there will be an explosion and galaxy disintegration. Scattered debris of planets moving around the galaxy’s stars will eternally furrow the Universe vastness.

Disintegration of galaxy transfers the center of equal pressure, in which the material substance starts to get concentrated, radiated by a group of galaxies.

Processes in the galaxy’s macrobodies are going on similarly. Material substance arriving in the center of equal pressure increases the mass of macrobody. Evolution of macrobody continues until pressure in the macrobody’s center is less than the constant pressure created by the group of stars in the center of equal pressure. As soon as pressure in the macrobody’s center exceeds the pressure created by the group of stars in the center of equal pressure, there will be the macrobody’s explosion. For this reason debris of planets moving around stars of a galaxy furrow the vastness of galaxies.

Disintegration of macrobody transfers the center of equal pressure, in which the material substance starts to get concentrated, radiated by a group of a group of stars.

The final phase of life of galaxies in the Universe and stars in galaxies is represented by explosions and disintegrations. Explosions and disintegrations of galaxies, as well as explosions and disintegrations of macrobodies in galaxies tend to create the new centers of equal pressure, which are the beginning of concentration of matter in these newly created centers of equal pressure. In these centers of the Universe new galaxies are born. The material substance of nascent galaxies is an initial material for birth of macrobodies in galaxies.

Therefore, the birth of infinite quantity of galaxies in the Universe takes place as a result of infinite disintegrations, i.e. explosions of galaxies in the Universe.

THIS IS THE LAW OF TRANSFER OF MATERIAL SUBSTANCE IN THE UNIVERSE.

 In the Universe continuously alternate: contropy - harmony – order – synthesis, and then whirlwinds – chaos – plasma and, finally, disintegration, entropy. This process is infinite.

Each period of entropy, disorder, disintegration gives new microparticles of substance for creation of new galaxies and macrobodies in galaxies, viz. for new harmonious association of the discrete in concrete, individual in the whole and quotient in the common.

The dialectics of development of all existing is uniform, i.e. birth – life – death. In nature it is shown in all variety, starting from processes in microcosm to processes in macrocosm.

According to fixed notions of the modern science, the Universe appeared as a result of one big bang and since then it is spreading continuously and gets cooled.

It follows from the above analysis of the process of birth, life and explosions of galaxies that as a result of explosions of galaxies and movement of centers of equal pressure there is a continuous and eternal redistribution, viz. transfer of material substance in the Universe, so it is not true to speak about any expansion of the Universe.

BIRTH, LIFE AND DEATH (EXPLOSIONS) OF GALAXIES IN THE UNIVERSE  AND MACROBODIES IN GALAXIES IS AN ETERNAL AND INFINITE PROCESS OF TRANSFER OF MATERIAL SUBSTANCE IN THE UNIVERSE.

As a result of concentration of matter in centers of equal pressure and birth of galaxies and macrobodies in these centers, there takes place constant increase of pressure inside galaxies and macrobodies. A consequence of increasing pressure is rise of temperature inside galaxies and macrobodies.

An example of increasing pressure and temperature inside a macrobody is our Earth. During the last centuries, the number of earthquakes, which are the proof of increasing pressure inside the Earth, has increased.

In book "ASTRODYNAMICS", the infinite closed process of birth, life and explosions of galaxies is investigated in detail. It is proved that as a result of explosions of galaxies the new centers of equal pressure are created, in which there is concentration of matter, as well as new galaxies and associations of galaxies (Metagalaxies) are born. Process of birth of macrobodies in galaxies is investigated. Research of behaviour of pressure and temperature in galaxies and macrobodies is conducted.

 

INTERACTION OF BODIES IN MOVING SYSTEMS OF CO-ORDINATES

 

Human beings more and more deeply get their reason into depths of the Universe . Historically it looks as follows.

Ptolemy considered our Earth as the center of the Universe, his system is geocentric. In geocentric Ptolemaic system, the system of co-ordinates is connected with the Earth. Processes occurring in the world around are investigated in respect to this system of co-ordinates. In the system of co-ordinates connected with the Earth, the Sun and all macrobodies of Space are moving around the Earth.

This system became a thing of history.

Copernicus considered the Sun as the center of the Universe, his system is heliocentric.

In Copernicus heliocentric system, the system of co-ordinates is connected with the Sun. Processes occurring in the world around are investigated in respect to this system of co-ordinates. In the system of co-ordinates connected with the Sun, the Earth and all macrobodies of Space are moving around the Sun.

 Being in one of these two systems of co-ordinates, it is impossible to determine, which system of co-ordinates is moving in respect to which, just as it cannot be determined, which of two standing trains started to move, being in one of them.

It is possible to determine movement of two trains in respect to each other only being in external system of co-ordinates not connected with trains. The system of co-ordinates connected with the railway station can be such a system of co-ordinates. As soon as an observer, who is in one of moving trains, spots the station and starts to investigate movement of trains in respect to the system of co-ordinates connected with this station, he will understand, which train is moving.

In the system of co-ordinates connected with the Sun, the Earth is moving around the Sun. In the system of co-ordinates connected with the Earth, the Sun is moving around the Earth, which we can observe daily.

In book «MATTER, SPACE, TIME, PRESSURE» and in book «WHETHER EINSTEIN IS RIGHT? DYNAMICS OF PROCESSES IN MOVING AND IN «CONDITIONALLY MOTIONLESS» SYSTEMS OF COORDINATES» it is proved that it is impossible to investigate processes in systems of co-ordinates moving among themselves in respect to one of them.

It is possible to examine processes in systems of co-ordinates moving among themselves only in the external system of co-ordinates not connected with moving systems of co-ordinates. It is possible to define this system of co-ordinates "conditionally” as motionless. Inverted commas in word "conditionally" stress that in nature there is nothing motionless.

To determine movement of the Sun and the Earth in respect to each other, it is necessary to place a "conditionally" motionless system of co-ordinates outside of these macrobodies, for example, in the center of Galaxy.

 In "conditionally" motionless system of co-ordinates connected with the center of Galaxy, the Sun is moving around the center of Galaxy, while the Earth is moving around the center of Galaxy center by helical path. Thus, in the system of co-ordinates connected with the center of Galaxy, the Earth is moving around the Sun not by ellipse, but makes during one turn around the Sun one helical circuit. Only in "conditionally" motionless system of co-ordinates arranged in the center of the Galaxy it is possible to determine that the Earth is moving around the Sun, and not the vice versa.

In "conditionally motionless system of co-ordinates connected with the center of our Galaxy, the Moon makes a double helical path. The Moon makes the first helical path around the Sun moving together with the Earth around the Sun. The Moon makes the second helical path around the Galactic center moving with the Sun around the Galaxy center.

It is possible to define the system of co-ordinates connected with the Galaxy Center as galactocentric (galactospheric).

 As the Galaxy is moving, hence, for determination of path of movement of the Sun in moving Galaxy it is necessary to consider movement of Galaxy in "conditionally" motionless system of co-ordinates located outside the Galaxy.

 It is possible to determine this system of co-ordinates as cosmocentric (cosmospheric).

 In "conditionally" motionless cosmocentric system of co-ordinates, the Sun is moving along a helical path around the selected space center. The Earth in this system of co-ordinates is moving along double helical path. The Earth makes the first helical path moving around the Sun and moving together with it around the galactic center, and the Earth makes the second helical path moving with the Sun along the path of movement of the Galaxy around the selected space center.

The Universe is an infinite policentric system of co-ordinates.

Rules of application of systems of co-ordinates are investigated in book «WHETHER EINSTEIN IS RIGHT? DYNAMICS OF PROCESSES IN MOVING AND IN «CONDITIONALLY MOTIONLESS» SYSTEMS OF COORDINATES» and in book «MATTER, SPACE, TIME, PRESSURE».

In these books there are given THESIS 1, THESIS 2 and a POSTULATE according to which it is necessary to investigate systems of co-ordinates moving among themselves

THESIS 1

No experiment conducted inside a system of co-ordinates can find out, whether the system of co-ordinates is motionless or moving.

THESIS 2

No experiment conducted in the system of co-ordinates located on one of two systems of co-ordinates moving among themselves can find out, which of these two systems of co-ordinates is motionless and which is moving.

POSTULATE

 It is possible to determine, whether n- systems of co-ordinates are moving or are motionless and to investigate parameters (speeds, paths, times, etc.) of systems of co-ordinates moving among themselves only in n+1 (n2) "conditionally motionless" system of co-ordinates. Conditionally "motionless" system of co-ordinates contains moving systems of co-ordinates, i.e. it is external in relation to them.

The Universe is an infinite cosmos sphere consisting of countless set galactic spheres (galaxies).

Our Galaxy is in galactocentric (galactospheric) system of co-ordinatesit is a part of Cosmos Sphere, i.e. part of the Universe.

The Universe consists of countless set of associations of elementary particles condensed in centers of equal pressure in the form of galaxies and stars of various brightness, size, density, age and speed of movement, radiation spheres of which are crossing in interstellar space, representing radial flux of microparticles of various energy.

The cosmos sphere is ambiguous by character of star clusters in it (galaxies and metagalaxies), and on this basis it is subdivided into a set of Galactic spheres.

Galactic spheres are moving in space along right or left helical paths. Stars in Galactic spheres are moving along helical paths with various radius, along axes of movement of galactic spheres (axes of movement of galactic spheres are also nonlinear in space).

            It is possible to consider conditionally:

  1. All galactic spheres moving along right helical paths, if one looks along axis of polarized movement (by corkscrew rule or pilot rule), will be negative (-), i.e. stars of these galactic spheres will have a negative moment of linear momentum;
  2. All galactic spheres moving along left helical paths will be positive (+), i.e. all stars of these galactic spheres will have a positive moment of linear momentum.

If by imagination one selects in space two nearby moving at enormous speed galactic spheres, for each of these galaxies the adjacent will be an antigalaxy (according to the law of interaction of conjugate spherical systems).

So, the infinite space of cosmos sphere is filled eternally and infinitely by galaxies and antigalaxies whirling near each other with speeds aboutof 800-1000 km/s .

Consequently, if consider stars of the galactic sphere as the worlds, then all macrobodies of galactic sphere conjugate with it will be antiworlds, and particles forming them will be antiparticles.

THE LAW OF SPACE UNIVERSAL PRESSURE

 

A basis of harmonious order in the Universe is the uniform, universal and ubiquitous law of the Universe, viz. the law of space universal pressure of eternally and infinitely moving microparticles.

On the basis of this law, each galaxy is in the center of equal pressure of a group of galaxies as a consequence of integral radial-spherical (centripetal) condensation of elementary particles given away by all galaxies of this area of Cosmos sphere.

 Each macrobody (nebula, planet, star, asteroid, comet, etc.) is in the center of equal pressure of a group of stars of galaxy as a consequence of integral radial-spherical (centripetal) condensation of elementary particles given away by all hot stars of this area of galactic sphere.

According to this law, the Universe is a polycentric infinite system, in which each galaxy is moving along strictly steady paths along axes of equal pressure (integral force, impact, impulse) of infinite set of microparticles given away by galaxies of this area of Cosmos sphere.

Each this macrobody in a galaxy is moving along strictly steady paths along axes of equal pressure (integral force, impact, impulse) of infinite set of microparticles given away by stars of this area of galactic sphere.

Now we can formulate the main law of interaction – the law of space universal pressure:

 

            «All and any bodies of objectively real world, from electron to molecule, from nucleus to macrobodies: planets, suns, stars, from solar system to whole galaxies, stay in a condition of mutual pressure as consequence of eternal and infinite movement of microparticles of matter forming these bodies, space around them and between them, i.e. the matter».

 

The space is filled by eternally and infinitely moving microparticles of matter. There is no space without a matter. By their movement microparticles are filling all space, creating density of matter in this area of a macrobody, a galaxy, Space. Each macrobody is subjected to space pressure as a sum of impulses of elementary particles in various phases of movement attacking the macrobody.

On the basis of the law of space universal pressure in book "ASTRODYNAMICS" the law of density is obtained.

 

MACROBODY EVOLUTION

A macrobody being in the star phase radiates in surrounding space a material substance, of which this macrobody consists (electrons, protons, neutrons, their combinations, nuclei and molecules).

Any macrobody can radiate only those, of which it consists . Microparticles are moving radially from the star.

  Simultaneously, the macrobody, which is in the star phase, receives the material substance arriving in the center of equal pressure.

Microparticles can be braked in their eternal and infinite movement. It occurs in the center of equal pressure. By changing the movement form, they do not change the absolute speed of movement (velocity of light) – C. Formation of substances of various density is connected precisely with the changed form of movement of microparticles in the center of equal pressure .

  As a result of concentration of microparticles of substance in the center of equal pressure a gas/dust nebula is created, in which center a macrobody is being conceived.

The macrobody constantly increases its mass as a result of arrival of material substance in the center of equal pressure.

In the course of evolution starting from concentration of microparticles in the center of equal pressure and before macrobody formation, as a result of ever growing pressure by the increasing mass of macrobody all substances of a planet (gas, liquid, solid body) are created.

Under ever growing pressure pressure the run of microparticles tend to decrease. Microparticles moving along nonlinear helical paths are turned off in helical/spherical paths. There are created electronic (coulomb) and nucleon (nuclear) fields. Nuclei of substances are born. Process of formation of nuclei of substances is described in book "ASTRODYNAMICS" and in book "MICRODYNAMICS".

  During this period, various fields representing spaces filled with moving microparticles are created.

 The generated substances create thermal fields, light fields, electromagnetic fields, etc. Process of generation of electromagnetic, light, thermal and other fields along with their interaction among themselves is described in book "ELECTRODYNAMICS" and in book «BY WHICH A MAGNET PULLS IRON BODIES?» and in book «LIGHT AND HEAT. WHAT IS RADIATED BY THE SUN?».   

The material substance concentrated in the center of equal pressure is an initial material for birth of macrobodies and their sattelites.

Our Sun is created by the material substance concentrated in the center of equal pressure.

  Density and mass of planets of the Solar system are determined by a distance from the Sun and reflect the process of shielding and redistribution by the Sun of material substance arriving in the center of equal pressure.

By shielding and redistribution of  material substance by the Sun there are explained high density and small mass of planets located near the Sun and small density, but big mass of planets located farther from the Sun.

Total radiation of matter by a galaxy consists of radiation of stars of the galaxy and, finally, is determined by the quantity of substance, which is redistributed by a group of galaxies in this area of the Universe.

Similarly there is ongoing the process of evolution of galaxy located in the center of equal pressure created by a group of galaxies of the Space.

Process of evolution of macrobodies in a galaxy is in detail investigated in book "ASTRODYNAMICS". Process of birth of planets in the Solar system is investigated.

 

GRAVITATION FIELD

      

A macrobody does not create gravitation field. The macrobody only redistributes a flux of material substance arriving in the center of equal pressure. Shielding of material substance is determined by mass of a macrobody. For this reason the mass of macrobody determines boundaries of gravitation field of a macrobody.

Process of shielding and redistribution by a macrobody of material substance is in detail described in book "ASTRODYNAMICS".

In books «MATTER, SPACE, TIME, PRESSURE», "ASTRODYNAMICS" and in book "BY WHICH THE SUN PULLS THE EARTH" it is proved that in nature there is no attraction. The source of movement can be only a push. Interaction and rotation of macrobodies occur not as a result of attraction between macrobodies, but due to pressure difference created between them.

 Attraction perceived by sight is a consequence of pressure created by flux of microparticles in the center of equal pressure. Process of creation of pressure difference between macrobodies and generation of gravitation field around macrobodies is described in book "ASTRODYNAMICS" and in book "BY WHICH THE SUN PULLS THE EARTH".

In the course of macrobody’s evolution, at a certain stage and under certain conditions, an appearance of atmosphere around macrobody is possible. In this case, the atmosphere appears to be compressed from all directions by flux of microparticles of the group of stars of a galaxy and the nearest Space.

Atmosphere is the material substance created around the macrobody during a certain moment of historical development of macrobody. For example, atmosphere of our Earth consists of nuclei of air, i.e. from nuclei of nitrogen and oxygen. Electrons of electronic covers of densely packed nuclei of air being under attack of flux of microparticles radiated by the group of stars in the center of equal pressure transfer impulses from nucleus to nucleus in the atmosphere medium.

 The flux of microparticles compressing atmosphere of a macrobody creates atmospheric pressure. On the surface of our Earth atmospheric pressure is equal to 1.

The space filled with material substance transferring impulses created by flux of microparticles of group of stars in the center of equal pressure is a pulse gravitation field around the macrobody.

An example of the pulse gravitation field is the gravitation field created around our Earth.

Process of creation of gravitation field around a macrobody is in detail described in book "ASTRODYNAMICS" and in book "BY WHICH THE SUN PULLS THE EARTH".

 

GRAVITATION FIELD OF GALAXIES IS FORMED SIMILARLY

 

A galaxy redistributes flux of material substance arriving in the center of equal pressure. Shielding of material substance is determined by the mass of a galaxy. The mass of a galaxy determines boundaries of galaxy’s gravitation field.

 

Precisely mutual repulsion of galaxies in Space and macrobodies in a galaxy creates the order, which we observe in our Galaxy and in the Universe.

 

  THE UNIFORM FORMULA OF INTERACTION OF FIELDS AND BODIES. THE UNIFORM FORMULA OF FORCE

The process of interaction of fields is subject to the uniform law of interaction described in detail in book «UNIFORM FORMULA OF INTERACTION OF FIELDS AND BODIES».

Any field is a space filled with directionally moving microparticles.

The law of interaction of fields and bodies consists in the following:

Moving microparticles of a field create flux. The flux creates intensity. Intensity is an ability of microparticles of the field to make action. On any body, which is in the field, the flux of microparticles of this field exerts pressure proportional to quantity of microparticles in this body. Pressure goes into force applied to the body. Force is the cause of acceleration, hence, a body in any field will receive acceleration and will move at a speed determined by this acceleration.

This law works equally both in gravitation field and in electromagnetic field and in light field and in any other field formed by directionally moving microparticles.

Using the uniform formula of interaction of fields and bodies in book «UNIFORM FORMULA OF INTERACTION OF FIELDS AND BODIES» there was received the formula of force of interaction of fields and bodies.

                     The received formula of force is the uniform formula determining the force of interaction of N fields as one material substance, and n fields of different material substances.

By means of this formula received in general view, there are obtained formulas of forces received in physics experimentally during all last centuries.

There are obtained formulas of forces received intuitively and experimentally by the greatest physicists Newton, Coulomb, Ohm, Ampere, there is obtained formula of Biot-Savart-Laplace, Lorentz's transformations are investigated, etc.

There is obtained the formula of interaction force of magnetic field of magnet with a body located between magnet’s poles.

With a help of the uniform formula of force it is possible to receive formulas of forces of interaction of all fields of the world surrounding us.

 

CLASSIFICATION OF FIELDS

The whole objectively real world consists of eternally and infinitely moving microparticles of substance, which in the course of interaction form all micro- and macro-bodies of the Universe, i.e. the matter. The absolute form of existence of all microparticles is an eternal and infinite movement, which absolute speed is equal to velocity of light.

   Eternally and infinitely moving microparticles of substance do not require any external forces for the display and action on similar microparticles; on the basis of this principle it is necessary to accept that all types of modern fields are no more than a mathematical abstraction reflecting processes of interaction of eternally and infinitely moving microparticles of matter.

It is possible to investigate the processes occurring in this or that field on a macrobody or in a galaxy only with allowance the medium which created this field, macrobody or galaxy.

Taking a macrobody from the medium, in which this macrobody was created, and by drawing it on a piece of paper, scientists are compelled to search for forces of interaction inside the macrobody.

Throughout centuries and up to the present time scientists investigate the Earth and its gravitation field  separately from the medium, in which the planet Earth is born. Precisely for this reason there is a tendency to associate the gravitation field only with the Earth.

Generation of gravitation fields and interaction of macrobodies is explained in book "ASTRODYNAMICS" and in book "BY WHICH THE SUN PULLS THE EARTH".

In a similar situation there turned out to be investigations of nuclei of substances.

After drawing on a piece of paper one nucleus, scientists are compelled to search for the forces keeping microparticles in nucleus, inside nucleus.

   Scientists search forces arising in electronic (coulomb) and nuclear fields of nuclei in the nucleus itself. Generation of electronic and nuclear fields of nuclei and processes occurring in this fields are investigated in book "MICRODYNAMICS" composed of books «ATOMIC PHYSICS. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF COULOMB FIELD»,  «NUCLEAR PHYSICS. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF NUCLEAR FIELD», «ELEMENTARY PARTICLES. STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES»,  in book «BY WHICH A PROTON PULLS ELECTRON» and in book «BY WHICH NUCLEONS ARE KEPT IN ATOM’S NUCLEUS».

All variety of fields of the world surrounding us can be divided into three types: free, semifree and closed.

Classification of fields is given in article «FORMATION AND INTERACTION OF FIELDS».

 

            Creation of gravitational fields and their interaction among themselves is described in detail in book "ASTRODYNAMICS" and in book BY WHICH THE SUN PULLS THE EARTH”.

            Creation of electromagnetic, light, thermal and other fields and their interaction among themselves is described in detail in book "ELECTRODYNAMICS", in book  LIGHT AND HEAT. WHAT IS RADIATED BY THE SUN?» and in book “BY WHICH A MAGNET PULLS IRON BODIES?”

            Creation of electronic and nuclear fields and their interaction among themselves is described in detail in book MICRODYNAMICS" composed of books «ATOMIC PHYSICS. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF COULOMB FIELD»,  «NUCLEAR PHYSICS. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF NUCLEAR FIELD», «ELEMENTARY PARTICLES. STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES»,  in book «BY WHICH A PROTON PULLS ELECTRON» and in book «BY WHICH NUCLEONS ARE KEPT IN ATOM’S NUCLEUS».

The uniform formula of interaction of fields and bodies as well as the uniform formula of forces of interaction of fields and bodies are given in book «UNIFORM FORMULA OF INTERACTION OF FIELDS AND BODIES».

Investigation of processes ongoing in systems of co-ordinates moving among themselves is described in detail in book «MATTER, SPACE, TIME, GRAVITATION» and in book «WHETHER EINSTEIN IS RIGHT? DYNAMICS OF PROCESSES IN MOVING AND IN «CONDITIONALLY MOTIONLESS »SYSTEMS OF COORDINATES».

 

 

BIOLOGICAL PHASE OF THE PLANET

TRANSFER OF MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE

In the Universe eternally and infinitely there the matter is moving. This process of the matter movement in the Universe can be divided into two stages, viz. contropy and entropy.

Contropy is defined as a concentration of matter in any, but firmly determined centre of equal pressure, its synthesis from elementary gases to formation of all substances in the world around us.

The process of contropy can be divided into three periods.

In the first period, concentration of the matter’s microparticles creates cold plasma. Pressure created in the centre of equal pressure is minimum. Tracks of microparticles are great. This period is possible to call the phase of gas-dust nebula.

In the second period, in pace with the increase of concentration of microparticles of matter pressure created in the centre of equal pressure tend to increase. Tracks of microparticles are likely to decrease. The material substance is conceived and formed. The macrobody is born. The macrobody is compressed by pressure created by flux of microparticles of a certain group of stars.

The weight of macrobody is increasing. Pressure inside the macrobody is growing. Pressure growth leads to increase of temperature inside the macrobody. As a result of pressure growth inside the macrobody, a chaotic Brownian motion of microparticles increases in it. The material substance in the macrobody’s centre begins to melt. Magma is created. The external, not molten part of macrobody is the mantle. It is possible to define this period as the planet phase.

In the third period, as a result of maximum concentration of the matter, pressure inside the planet mounts to hundreds of millions of atmospheres, and the temperature goes up to tens and hundreds of millions of degrees. Concentration of microparticles of matter creates hot plasma. It is possible to identify this period as the star phase. The planet goes in the star phase and starts to radiate the earlier accumulated material substance.

The material substance matter arriving in the centre of equal pressure continues to increase the star’s weight. Pressure inside the star continues to grow. There comes a moment, when pressure inside the star exceeds pressure from the outside. There is an explosion, disintegration, chaos, i.e. entropy.

ENTROPY is the disintegration of macrobody (star). This stage determines the death of macrobody and transfer of concentration of matter to the new centre of equal pressure created by a certain group of stars. In the newly formed centre of equal pressure, the process of concentration of matter begins.

Chaos, disorder, then entropy gives rise to the order, synthesis conceives contropy.

Contropy gives rise to entropy. Entropy gives rise to contropy. This process is infinite, as the Universe itself.

Macrobodies created in the centre of equal pressure of a certain group of stars of a galaxy are born, live and die. Dying (exploding) macrobodies create new centers of equal pressure in a galaxy. In these centers of equal pressure the material substance starts to concentrate again giving rise to a macrobody. The process of transfer of material substance in galaxy consists in this.

Similarly, there are born, live and die galaxies created in the centre of equal pressure of a certain group of galaxies. Dying (exploding) macrobodies create new centers of equal pressure in a galaxy. In these centers of equal pressure the material substance starts to concentrate again giving rise to galaxies. The process of eternal and infinite transfer of material substance in the Universe consists in this.

The theory of birth, life and death of galaxies in the Universe and macrobodies in galaxies is given in book "ASTRODYNAMICS" and in book «BY WHICH THE SUN PULLS THE EARTH».

MATERIAL MEDIA IN THE COURSE OF PLANET’S EVOLUTION

In the course of macrobody’s evolution, multitude of processes created by moving microparticles is formed. Throughout the whole history of physics these processes were commonly defined as aethers, effusions. In modern physics they are defined as fields. For example, thermal field, light field, gravitational field, nuclear field, electromagnetic field, etc. Change of names of processes does not bring any clearness.

Books presented on the site, «MATTER, SPACE, TIME, GRAVITATION», "ASTRODYNAMICS", "ELECTRODYNAMICS", "MICRODYNAMICS provide evidence that any field is the space filled with moving microparticles.

Gravitational field is the space filled with microparticles of matter moving directionally towards the macrobody. Creation and internal structure of gravitational field are investigated in book "ASTRODYNAMICS" and in the book «BY WHICH THE SUN PULLS THE Earth?».

Thermal field is a chaotic, Brownian motion of microparticles. The internal structure of thermal field is investigated in book "ELECTRODYNAMICS" and in the book «LIGHT AND HEAT. WHAT RADIATES THE SUN?».

Light field is the ordered motion of microparticles (photons) with formation of waves in environment. The internal structure of light field is investigated in books "Microdynamics" and "ELECTRODYNAMICS" and in the book «LIGHT ANd HEAT. WHAT RADIATES THE SUN?».

Electromagnetic field is the space filled by moving directionally electrons. The internal structure of electromagnetic field is investigated in book "ELECTRODYNAMICS".

The Coulomb field is the space filled with moving electrons.

Nuclear field is the space filled with moving nucleons.

The internal structure of Coulomb and nuclear field is investigated in book MICRODYNAMICS "composed of books« ATOMIC PHYSICS. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF COULOMB FIELD "," NUCLEAR PHYSICS. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF NUCLEAR FIELD "," ELEMENTARY PARTICLES. STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES », in book «BY WHICH A PROTON PULLS ELECTRON» and in book «BY WHICH NUCLEONS ARE KEPT IN ATOM’S NUCLEUS».

In the nature there are only microparticles moving in space and in time. All bodies and processes (different fields) are created by combinations of moving microparticles.

Human being gave names, e.g. heat, light, thought, electromagnetic field, etc. to all material processes formed by moving microparticles.

It is necessary to understand clearly that thermal field, light field, biofield, electromagnetic field and any other field are names of processes created by moving microparticles. There is a tendency to forget often that these are only names of processes formed by moving microparticles and to think about heat, light, thought, electromagnetic field, a gravitational field, etc. as independently existing material substance.

Let's show it on an example.

From daily experience we know that the closer one is to a source of light (electric bulb) and heat source (oven), the more warm and more light is there. In this case how to explain that on the surface of Earth in summer temperature can reach plus of 30 degrees, while at a plane flight height (15 km from the surface of Earth) temperature is minus 30 degrees? At a height of 400 kilometres from the surface of Earth it is dark, while on the surface of Earth during the day everything is spotlighted.

What then is radiated by the Sun?

The Sun can radiate only than, of what it consists. The Sun consists of helium and hydrogen. Nuclei of helium and hydrogen consist of microparticles, i.e. electrons, protons, neutrons and their combinations.

The Sun is radiating 4 million tons of matter (microparticles) per second. While particles are fly and do not interact with each other it is cold and dark. Getting into the Earth atmosphere, these particles start interacting with nuclei of atmosphere.

It should be said that only in the Earth atmosphere there is created a whirl, Brownian motion of microparticles defined by humans as "heat". As well as only in the Earth atmosphere there takes place the fluctuation of electronic covers of the atmosphere nuclei defined by humans as "light".

Not heat and not light are radiated by the Sun, but only microparticles, of which it consists. Heat and light are not radiated. Heat and light are excited.

Thus, we provided the answer: the Sun does not radiate neither heat, nor light. The Sun radiates only microparticles.

BIOLOGICAL PHASE OF MACROBODY

In the second period of contropy in pace with concentration of material substance and with increasing pressure inside the macrobody, which is in a phase of planet, there is an evolutionary process of creation of light substances consisting of elementary nuclei up to heavy substances containing complex combination of nuclei.

In the course of planet’s evolution, in case of favorable coincidence of circumstances, on planet’s surface occurrence of natural world is probable. Such circumstances can be defined as:

- A certain distance of planet from the star, at which the necessary density of planet’s material substance is created,

- A certain distance of planet from the star, at which on planet’s surface there is created temperature necessary for occurrence of natural world,

- Uniform rotation of planet around its own axis promoting uniform heating of the planet’s surface,

- Planet’s warm-up from within, which is the necessary factor for creation of natural world on the planet.

All these conditions are fulfilled on our plane, the Earth. The planet Earth, as well as other planets of Solar system, is formed by a material substance radiated by a group of stars in our Galaxy in the centre of equal pressure. In the centre of equal pressure the Sun is created. The weight and density of Earth reflect the weight and density of spheres of material substance, in which the planet Earth is moving around the Sun. Other planets of the Solar system also reflect the density and weight of environment, in which they are and in which they are created.

In these conditions the evolutionary process of material substance takes place on the planet. Flora and fauna appear. The highest form of this evolutionary process can be appearance of natural world. Precisely such process is taking place on the planet Earth.

The highest form of evolution of material substance is appearance of animate nature (animals, humans).

The highest form of evolution of natural world is the brain. The brain defines behaviour of live beings in their interaction with surrounding nature.

In the course of natural world evolution, homo sapiens was created. In human brain there is a thought process.

The thought is a controlled process of motion of microparticles of material substance of brain with formation of steady combinations of microparticles. Steady combinations of microparticles in a brain determine memory of humans.

Humans capable to think not only can adapt to a world around, but also alter it.

Humans try to understand and imagine an evolutionary way, by which the nature created all around, natural world and the human himself. Humans try to get mind into internal structure of processes of nature, to understand laws of nature in the environment and in the Universe.

Humans collect and accumulate in the brain information from experience of relations with the material surrounding nature.

Temperature interval, in which there can exist the material substance of natural world, is ± (50 … 60) degrees. Below-50 degrees the material substance of natural world would freeze, above +50 degrees the material substance of natural world would fry.

The temperature interval of existence of material substance in the nature is within limits from minus 273 degrees (temperature of absolute zero) to tens or hundreds thousand degrees inside planets and to millions degrees inside the Sun. Thus, the temperature interval of existence of natural world in the temperature interval of macrobody life is infinitesimal.

EVOLUTION OF THE PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE

During all the times only encyclopaedically educated scientists with materialistic stands systematised the experimental materials and summed up all scientific activity of mankind.

Appearance of a scientist of encyclopaedic learning is produced by a course of scientific research itself and represents the natural ending of scientific achievements at a certain historical stage of development of science. Especially this process is evident in physics and philosophy.

Scientists of encyclopaedic learning in physics I. Newton, M. Lomonosov, Leonardo da Vinci. In philosophy scientists of encyclopaedic learning were F.Engels V. Lenin.

Deep knowledge in all areas of sciences at a certain time give a chance to scientists of encyclopaedic learning to subject all data of sciences to logic analysis. We will track the process of knowledge in historical development.

From ancient times humans tried to understand and explain processes of nature surrounding them.

The primitive person explained everything by a divine origin.

First, because his brain was at an early stage of evolutionary development.

Second, already at a later step of human being development the experimental material was not accumulated yet, by analyzing which the human brain would start to get into internal structure of processes.

At a later stage of human being development there appeared the third factor, braking the process of knowledge, viz. the inquisition.

Any religion exists on the background of ignorance of people. The purpose of any religion is in rule over people, and it is easier to do with people having little education, ignorant, trusting blindly religious dogmata.

For this reason the church throughout centuries and even millenia prosecuted scientists. They were burnt on fires, put in prisons.

The science was breaking through in the historical process of development of society with big efforts.

Rather recently people worshipped the god of thunder and lightning. Scientists, in the course of knowledge, found the reason of lightning and thunder. They established that the lightning is the electric discharge accompanied by acoustic effect, i.e. thunder. The electric discharge is a material process of movement of electrons. The natural phenomenon became clear, and necessity for the god of lightning and thunder disappeared.

MATERIALISM - IDEALISM - ENERGITICS

In the course of acquiring knowledge of the world around there appeared several trends professing this or that ideology. The main from these trends are materialism and idealism. Along with them there are also other trends, for example, energitics.

Materialism emanates from the fact that primary is the matter, which in the course of evolution creates all processes surrounding us.

Idealism asserts that consciousness, thinking, spiritual is primary, and the matter, nature, physical things are secondary, derivative and dependent.

Energitics as the Weltanschauung reduces all existing and occurring to energy, including the matter and spirit, which represent not other than forms of manifestation of energy.

The concept "energy" was introduced by human beings. Energy by its definition represents an ability of matter (body) to make work. We would like to draw attention of the reader that energy is an ability. Energy was introduced by humans for convenience so that to compare among themselves processes occurring in nature.

Energy in itself in separation from the matter cannot exist and does not exist. Energy is a measure. The body is material, and energy is not material. Energy exists only in heads of scientists, engineers in the form of formulas. By means of formulas there are made calculations for technical purposes.

Therefore we will not investigate energitics, as from our materialistic point of view energitics does not make sense.

The basic ideological struggle on arena of sciences is between materialism and idealism. This article on the site is devoted to analysis of struggle of materialism with idealism.

Let's begin with the following example. The electric current in conductor is the ordered motion of electrons. It is demonstrated experimentally and does not raise doubts. The electric current is a material process.

In the course of motion of electrons in conductor under current, around it there is created electromagnetic field.

At the current historical moment, scientific materialists cannot answer a question, what in itself is the electromagnetic field. Moreover, as they do not understand the internal structure of electromagnetic field, they appear to be at time deadlock. In pace with accumulation of experimental data, the structure of electromagnetic field will be discovered.

It happens in a science constantly. We would remind an example with thunder and lightning, which were perceived as a divine origin, until scientists explained physical essence of thunder and lightning.

Let's return to electromagnetic field. Until scientific materialists do not find out internal structure of electromagnetic field, they will be in search.

From stands of idealism everything is always clear: everything is created by someone, but only not by evolutionary material processes.

Materialists are compelled to make a compromise, but as it is proved historically, they agree on the temporary compromise.

In the issue of structure of electromagnetic field materialists also made a compromise by calling electromagnetic field as the matter of special type. But in the nature there cannot be matter and matters of special type. The matter is one.

Let's continue research of electromagnetic field. Maxwell, the author of the theory of electromagnetic field, as electromagnetic field understood the space, in which the material substance is moving.

Book "ELECTRODYNAMICS" presented on this site provide evidence that electrons of electric current moving in conductor leave the conductor and are moving outside of conductor filling the space around it.

The space filled by directionally moving electrons outside the conductor with current represents electromagnetic field.

But until the present time, whether because of insufficient judgment by scientists of experiments, which by now is accumulated enough for understanding the structure of electromagnetic fields, whether because of inertia of thinking, whether as a result of opposition to materialistically conceiving scientist, the official physics does not see, or does not wish to see, that the internal structure of electromagnetic field is understandable.

In the problem of electromagnetic field the idealism for the time being triumphs its victory.

Similar condition is with macrobody’s gravitational field. Scientific materialists also make concession to idealists by agreeing with the statement that gravitation (attraction) is the reason of motion.

Motion can be either from a push, or from attraction. The reality of motion made by a push is doubtless. Hence, gravitation in nature does not exist. Gravitation (convergence of bodies) is a consequence. The reason of convergence of bodies is the push.

On this site in book "ASTRODYNAMICS" an analysis of the problem of gravitation in historical development is carried out. Book "ASTRODYNAMICS" and book «BY WHICH THE SUN PULLS THE EARTH?» provide evidence that the material substance radiated by a certain group of stars of a galaxy creates the centre of equal pressure. In the centre of equal pressure macrobodies are formed. As a result of shielding by the macrobody of material substance gravitational field is created around the macrobody.

The gravitational field is the space filled by microparticles of matter directionally moving to macrobody.

STRUGGLE OF MATERIALISM AGAINST IDEALISM IS THE ENGINE OF KNOWLEDGE IN SCIENCES

The idealism by developing and stressing the effective subjective side of knowledge, at the same time, considers it in a very abstract way, i.e. without analysis of objective activity of human being learning in his activity the world around, and, thus, perverts monstrously the whole situation.

The dialectic materialism considers knowledge as «sensual-human activity», but human being contrary to idealism it considers not abstractly, but as a part of the same objective world, as a concrete existing person, which knowledge activity is a concrete product.

«The main difference of materialist from the supporter of idealistic philosophy, - Lenin told , - consists  in the fact that sensation, perception, conception and in general consciousness of a person is accepted as an image of objective reality. The world is movement of this objective reality reflected by our consciousness. To movement of conceptions, perceptions etc. there corresponds movement of matter out of me. The concept of matter does not express anything other than the objective reality given us for perception. Therefore to tear off movement from matter is equivalent to tear off thinking from objective reality, to tear off my perceptions from external world, i.e. come over to the side of idealism».

              (V.Lenin, «Materialism and empirical criticism», p. 250)

To scientific idealists it is easier. It is possible to explain with ease any process, any phenomenon of a world around by idea, without material essence.

For example, it is affirmed that gravitational field draws bodies. Idealism will be satisfied with the formulation of occurring process and a formula describing this process. A materialist will be interested by internal mechanism of process of attraction of bodies. The materialist will search for an answer to question: by which one body attracts another body?

Precisely the struggle of materialism with idealism, in which the materialism is compelled to search constantly for ways and proofs of materiality of processes of nature, is the stimulus in knowledge of the surrounding world.

Scientific materialists throughout the whole history of science investigated laws of nature proceeding from materialistic stands in spite of the fact that they were prosecuted, burnt on fires and thrown in prisons.

Modern physics does not give any physical arguments in favour of idealism.

Why then, despite actually materialistic contents of physics, its founders in their philosophical interpretations accepted the idealistic point of view?

In magazine «Questions of philosophy» M.A. Markov refers to Lenin's works, in which an answer to this question is given. We would like to cite his article:

«An irrefragable answer to this question is given by Lenin's, works which keep all topicality also at the present stage of development of science». (M.A. Markov, «On the nature of physical knowledge», Questions of philosophy, 2009).

In Lenin's works, a deep analysis of various philosophical trends is given. In book «MATTER, SPACE TIME, GRAVITATION» during investigation of concepts of matter, space, time by various philosophical views we will use among others also the analysis made by Lenin

Physicists of all times followed tradition of accurately defining the sense of physical concepts, which are necessary for subsequent statement of theory.

Definition of physical concepts should contain a description of experiments, with the help of which it is possible to conduct observations and measurements concerning a certain physical concept.

It means that there should be such an experiment, which carrying out would not enter into contradiction with a theory containing this concept, and which is considered at present correct. If carrying out of such an experiment contradicts notions of the theory and within the limits of this theory it appears essentially impossible in principle, the inconsistency of this concept is ascertained.

In other words, «a physicist should know, about what he speaks». In order that words of physical definitions were not trifle, the physicist not only should tell, but also in principle "show", about what all this is about, i.e. to conduct antecedent interpretation by means of devices and experiment.

At first sight, it is impossible to see a great importance of this, apparently, simple truth: «the physicist should know, about what he speaks».

Often misunderstanding consists in the fact that the physicist «thinks that he knows, about what he speaks». In such cases the experiment does not confirm the theory.

In the course of knowledge of the world around scientists as though look film vise versa, from the end to the beginning, trying to solve a chain of interactions, which could lead to the investigated result.

The greatest physicists of last centuries asserted that they do not understand a phenomenon until they construct its model.

Humans began to comprehend the world around with the help of science closest to them - Astronomy. The system created by Ptolemaus was the first attempt to construct the system of a world around. More adequate system was created by Copernicus. Newton summarised the scientific activity of generations and formulated the laws of mechanics.

CLASSICAL MECHANICS AND QUANTUM MECHANICS

By works of the greatest minds of mankind there was created classical physics. Laws of interaction of bodies were defined.

Successes of classical mechanics provided hope to understand all natural phenomena as phenomena of mechanics, to understand all physical phenomena through mechanical movements of more or less complex combinations of simple particles.

In the XX-th century a number of experiments were conducted, including experiments on diffraction and interferences, as well as experiments with electric current, which baffled physicists. Experiments on diffraction and interference on one gap, on two gaps and experiments with electric current showed that in the course of movement and interaction microparticles tend to show wave properties.

With discovery of wave properties of microparticles and not understanding the nature of occurrence of waves in their experiments, scientists were compelled to think out explanations to these experiences. Precisely detection of the wave phenomena generated by interaction of microparticles with the screen (Fresnel rings, Joung experiments) compelled, as we will understand from the subsequent description, to depart temporarily from the laws of classical mechanics and to create the quantum mechanics.

As experiments, which revealed wave properties of microparticles, were not explained and understood, hence, also the quantum mechanics created for interpretation of these experiments is too a science not understood.

By not having managed to combine corpuscular properties of microparticles with wave properties, founders of quantum mechanics, illogically, deprived microparticle of a path. Moreover, till now the physics asserts that microparticles have no classical trajectories.

Negation of trajectories of microparticles and the wave phenomena created by moving microparticles created mess in the heads of scientists.

There was a "catastrophe" of model notions. It was necessary to combine incompatible, i.e. a particle having certain parametres: weight, speed, impulse and so forth, with the wave. But the wave is a phenomenon created by collective action of the matter, for example, acoustic waves in the environment, water waves in the sea.

In physics there come a period of a conflict of notions within the limits of classical mechanics. It occurred just because physicists could not find a path of microparticles, and as it will be clear from the subsequent description, they used projections (waves) of spatial spiral path of microparticles.

An assertion that electron exists irrespective of our experience has a certain sense also in the quantum theory, but a question, in which kind it exists, as this electron "looks" "in itself", when it is not observed, is deprived in some properties of unequivocal macroscopical certainty. Really, the requirement to describe, «how electrons look», in its latent form means its description in macroscopical concepts. But for this purpose it is necessary to "design" this reality in respect to macrocosm, and this "projection" is made by means of a device and it appears different, depending on a character of the device.

Of course, it does not mean that it is impossible to tell absolutely nothing about electron, that it turns in some "shade". Many electron’s characteristics are not connected with that or other class of macroscopical device: electron’s charge, weight, etc.

In experiments conducted with electric current, wave properties were also evident. In book "ELECTRODYNAMICS" it is experimentally proved that electrons are moving along helical (spiral) paths.

Magnetic needles or sawdust arranged on plane XY perpendicular to axis Z of conductor, via which the electric current is going, are arranged along circles around the conductor.

Magnetic needles or sawdust arranged on a plane parallel to the axis of conductor, via which the electric current is going, are arranged along axis Z of conductor.

Magnetic needles (sawdust) are arranged along traces of moving electrons. By transposing traces of electrons in the cross-section direction (circle in plane XY) with traces of electrons in longitudinal direction (axis Z), it is easy to understand that in system of co-ordinates XYZ (space) electrons are moving along spiral paths. Not having managed to understand the path of microparticles, physics took another way, which dispersed with the laws of classical physics and illogically generated a monster - a «particle wave».

Physicists started talking about theories «without common sense». Eventually, the relativity theory appeared, and then the quantum theory.

In book “MATTER, SPACE, TIME, GRAVITATION” in section “uncertainty ratio” it is proved that: during each considered moment of time a microparticle moving along the spiral path takes strictly determined place in space determined by the co-ordinate of its centre of gravity ΔХ and quantity of movement ΔР.

To tell how there occurred a "catastrophe" of model notions means to tell the history of new physics. We will try to make it.

A large quantity of experiments accumulated in physics did not keep with model concepts of existing theories.

Physicists could not process until now all this experimental material, understand it and create a theory adequately reflecting processes, occurring in the world around.

Our organs of sense do not give us direct data on the nature of electromagnetic field. In this chain: electromagnetic field - test charge - organs of sense, the link «test charge - organs of sense» has a character of mechanical interaction. It was natural to consider also the nature of electromagnetic influence (link «electromagnetic field - test charge») mechanical too.

Motion of test charged body under the influence of electromagnetic field appears for us as mechanical in itself. Action of electromagnetic field becomes apparent by means of mechanical movement of test body.

Such notion was quite natural and historically inevitable, as our organs of sense "do not know" any interactions except mechanical, which would give sensation of effort or force.

We know, how to twist steel wire in spring so that it pulled an object, but "what" it is necessary to "twist" in electromagnetic field so that "it" pulled an iron piece - a charged body?

It is natural that this thought excited physicists from the very beginning of development of doctrine of electromagnetism. During many decades with th big persistence physicists were working on creation of theory of mechanical aether. Physicists aspired to find out, what mechanical properties the environment should possess, that specific actions on electrically charged and magnetic bodies were possible in it. Or, speaking differently, they aspired to construct a mechanical model of electromagnetic phenomena. Persistent failure pursued these searches.

Physicists could not construct an obvious consistent model of this reality and for a while stopped, having satisfied by now that these processes can be described in concepts of classical mechanics in terms of impulses and co-ordinates as a mechanical system with infinite number of degrees of freedom.

Notions of quantum physics in a sense are as model as notions of classical physics. But the model of classical physics, in effect, does not differ from the phenomenon itself: it is a «working model».

The model of quantum physics differs from models of classical physics by the fact that it "is not evident". Moreover, from the point of view of "obviousness" it is often ambiguous.

In the classical theory, the particle’s condition is characterised at a certain time by its exact position in space (co-ordinate), its weight and speed (impulse).

As the modern physics denies presence of path of elementary particles, the quantum mechanics was compelled to introduce concepts not reflecting real processes of nature.

If in Newton mechanics during solving specific tasks the values of impulse and co-ordinate during some time are set and the value of these parametres is found during any other moment of time, in the quantum theory they were compelled to set probability of finding a particle in any place of space with any impulse and to find, how this probability changes by any other moment of time.

The information on condition of particles was called a «particle condition», or condition of considered system, or «wave function». Corresponding mathematical function corresponds to the so-called wave equation.

Introduction of wave function occurred because the physics denies the path of movement of microparticles, defining it as probabilistic. Therefore, there appeared an intermediary function between processes, which are shown in experiment and by an unknown form of motion of microparticles. Therefore, there is uncertainty and dissatisfaction with those theories, including the quantum theory, which are created in the modern physics.

Here the words of a great physicist of the XX-th century, P.A.M.Dirac:

«A uniform, self-co-ordinated universal theory is necessary to us. Any special theory, which is put forward in connection with any private problem, should not contradict this general theory. Hardly it is necessary to tell you that such general theory is not created yet. It is that ultimate goal, to which achievement all physicists aspire». (P.A.M.Dirac, «Lectures on the quantum theory of field», Moscow, 1971, p. 10)

In the classical physics the particle is characterised, on the one hand, by co-ordinate, i.e. position in space and time, on the other hand, by a certain value of impulse and energy. A continuous number of positions of particle in space and in time gives us a space/time picture of movement of a particle.

Knowledge of values of impulse and energy of a particle and everything that occurs with these values in all peripetia with the particle gives the energy side of particle’s behaviour. The energy behaviour of particle is firmly characterised by laws of conservation of energy and impulse. The space/time and power energy sides in behaviour of a particle make the full characteristic of classical particle in the classical physics.

As in the quantum theory there is no microparticle path, hence, the impulse and co-ordinate cannot be simultaneously measured precisely. In the quantum theory, thus, it is possible to consider either only the energy side of particle’s behaviour from the point of view of preservation laws, or only the space/time side.

In the quantum mechanics particle’s "impulse" and "co-ordinate" are mutually competing concepts: if there is a condition of a particle with defined, i.e. precisely given value of impulse, to such reality the concept of certain position is inapplicable. And vise versa, if it is known that the particle is at present in a certain place, to the particle the concept of exact, certain impulse is inapplicable.

But what is then a particle of microcosm, how to represent it, if such restrictions are imposed? The quantum mechanics deprived of common sense the investigated behaviour of microparticles.

Just because in the quantum mechanics there is no common sense, there try to resort to the help of mathematics, which by definition cannot have common sense. Mathematics is the logic of quantity. But if there is no quantity, viz. common sense, what then to mathematize?

For this reason mathematics can lead to such conclusions, which contradict "common sense".

It is curious that in pace with continuous studying of problems of physics people tend to get so accustomed with these, in the beginning seemingly absurd results, tend to get used so to them that they start to consider them «clear by itself also without any mathematics, if to think properly about it».

As the processes occurring in microcosm are not understood by modern physics, in pace with advance penetration into microcosm the studied objects are displayed less and less evident is frequently by more inconsistent combinations of properties.

At this stage mathematics becomes a screen, behind which physicists hide, creating illusion of understanding the processes occurring in microcosm.

In the modern physics a judgment is cultivated that quantum notions seem very peculiar only «for want of habit», that when physicists after long "training" get used to them they start to think by quantum-mechanical images easily and in unproblematic way.

The matter is that physicists do not understand in the beginning, and then they get used to it.

For the last decades in increasing frequency there occurs a peculiar, purely mathematical creativity in physics. A physicist-theorist proceeding from some reasons often "offers" his equations for description of the whole set of physical phenomena, creating an imaginary world of physical phenomena.

Before us there is a book on theoretical physics. But «no entrance here for non-mathematician». The pattern of mathematical signs makes depressing impression upon a non-specialist and is an insurmountable barrier between modern physics and the public at large.

Thus, the quantum mechanics appeared to be created for itself.

In magazine «QUESTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY» M.A. Markov formulated his attitude to the quantum theory as to science, shifting research of an essence of quantum mechanics on shoulders of descendants.

«In our philosophical literature principle questions of quantum theory were not exposed to an attentive analysis yet … in other words, all difficulties of its analysis are assigned to shoulders of" descendants ". Perhaps, it is a very« convenient »stand, but the quantum theory exists already for a quarter of century». (M.A. Markov, «On the nature of physical knowledge», QUESTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY, 2009)

The theory of gravitation (gravitation) exists centuries and no descendants can clear up the gravitation theory for gravitations in the nature are not present. In a similar situation there is also a quantum mechanics. The quantum mechanics is unable to describe processes, for it is invented transient theory, which appeared because physics it denies microparticle motion paths.


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